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union carbide bhopal case study

Case Study: Union Carbide/Bhopal On December 3, , more than 3, people were killed and over 15, injured when the chemical methyl isocynate (MIC) was inadvertently released from a Union Carbide Chemical Plant in Bhopal, India. The scale of the tragedy, the loss of life and the implications for industrial/chemical manufacturing, made the. THE BHOPAL INDUSTRIAL DISASTER: A CASE STUDY (A) Introduction The Bhopal disaster which took place in the early morning hours of 4 December is undoubtedly the worst industrial accident in history. 1 A highly toxic chemical namely methyl isocynate2 escaped from the Union Carbide India Limited plane in Bhopal.4 Thousands died a terrible. Apr 16,  · Bhopal Gas Tragedy case study 1. Case Study onBhopal Gas Tragedy Made By- 2. Chemicals Dumped by Union Carbide in Bhopal cordreowebsa.tk Chemical Amount Use in factory Nature of original pollution 1 Methylene Chloride MT Solvent Air 2 Methanol 50 MT Solvent Air 3 Ortho-idichlorobenzene MT Solvent Air, Water, Soil 4 Carbon tetrachloride MT.


Bhopal disaster - Wikipedia


It is considered to be the world's worst industrial disaster. The highly toxic substance union carbide bhopal case study its way into and around the small towns located near the plant.

Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2, The government of Madhya Pradesh confirmed a total of union carbide bhopal case study, deaths related to the gas release. The Indian government and local activists argue that slack management and deferred maintenance created a situation where routine pipe maintenance caused a backflow of water into a MIC tank, triggering the disaster.

Eveready ended clean-up on the site inwhen it terminated its year lease and turned over control of the site to the state government of Madhya Pradesh, union carbide bhopal case study. All were released on bail shortly after the verdict.

An eighth former employee was also convicted, but died before the judgement was passed. After the Bhopal plant was built, other manufacturers including Bayer produced carbaryl without MIC, though at a greater manufacturing cost. This "route" differed from the MIC-free routes used elsewhere, in which the same raw materials were combined in a different manufacturing order, with phosgene first reacting with naphthol to form a chloroformate ester, which was then reacted with methylamine.

In the early s, the demand for pesticides had fallen, but production continued, leading to build-up of stores of unused MIC where that method was used. Intwo local trade unions complained of pollution within the plant. In a panic, he removed his gas mask and inhaled a large amount of toxic phosgene gas, leading to his death just 72 hours later. In Januarya phosgene leak exposed 24 workers, all of whom were admitted to a hospital. None of the workers had been ordered to wear protective masks.

One month later, in Februaryan MIC leak affected 18 workers. In Augusta chemical engineer came into contact with liquid MIC, resulting in burns over 30 percent of his body. Later that same year, in Octoberthere was another MIC leak. In attempting to stop the leak, the MIC supervisor suffered severe chemical burns and two other workers were severely exposed to the gases. During andthere were leaks of MIC, chlorine, monomethylamine, phosgene, and carbon tetrachloridesometimes in combination.

In the months leading up to the December leak, liquid MIC production was in progress and being used to fill these tanks. Each tank was pressurized with inert nitrogen gas.

This pressurization allowed liquid MIC to be pumped out of each tank as needed, and also kept impurities union carbide bhopal case study of the tanks.

In late Octobertank E lost the ability to effectively contain most of its nitrogen gas pressure, which meant that the liquid MIC contained within could not be pumped out.

At the time of this failure, tank E contained 42 tons of liquid MIC. Maintenance included the shutdown of the plant's flare tower so that a corroded pipe could be repaired. An attempt to re-establish pressure in tank Union carbide bhopal case study on 1 December failed, union carbide bhopal case study, so the 42 tons of liquid MIC contained within still could not be pumped out of it.

By early Decembermost of the plant's MIC related safety systems were malfunctioning and many valves and lines were in poor condition. In addition, several vent gas scrubbers had been out of service as well as the steam boiler, intended to clean the pipes.

Two different senior refinery employees assumed the reading was instrumentation malfunction. The incident was discussed by MIC area employees during the break. One employee witnessed a concrete slab above tank E crack as the emergency relief valve burst open, and pressure in the tank continued to increase to 55 psi About 30 tonnes of MIC escaped from the tank into the atmosphere in 45 to 60 minutes.

Finally, they received an updated report that it was "MIC" rather than "methyl isocyanate"which hospital staff had never heard of, had no antidote for, and received no immediate information about. Fifteen minutes later, the plant's public siren was sounded for an extended period of time, after first having been quickly silenced an hour and a half earlier. The initial effects of exposure were coughing, severe eye irritation and a feeling of suffocation, burning in the respiratory tract, blepharospasmbreathlessness, stomach pains and vomiting.

People awakened by these symptoms fled away from the plant. Those who ran inhaled more than those who had a vehicle to ride. Owing to their height, children and other people of shorter stature inhaled higher concentrations, as methyl isocyanate gas is approximately twice as dense as air and hence in an open environment has a tendency to fall toward the ground. Thousands of people had died by the following morning. Primary causes of deaths were chokingreflexogenic circulatory collapse and pulmonary oedema.

Findings during autopsies revealed changes not only in the lungs but also cerebral oedematubular necrosis of the kidneys, fatty degeneration of the liver and necrotising enteritis. Apart from MIC, based on laboratory simulation conditions, the gas cloud most likely also contained chloroformunion carbide bhopal case study, dichloromethanehydrogen chloridemethylaminedimethylaminetrimethylamine and carbon dioxidethat was either present in the tank or was produced in the storage tank when MIC, chloroform and water reacted.

The gas cloud, composed mainly of materials denser than air, stayed close to the ground and spread in the southeasterly direction affecting the nearby communities. In the immediate aftermath, the plant was closed to outsiders including UCC by the Indian governmentwhich subsequently failed to make data public, contributing to the confusion, union carbide bhopal case study. Upon arrival Anderson was placed under house arrest and urged by the Indian government to leave the country within 24 hours, union carbide bhopal case study.

Union Carbide organized a team of international medical experts, as well as supplies and equipment, union carbide bhopal case study, to work with the local Bhopal medical community, and the UCC technical team began assessing the cause of the gas leak.

The health care system immediately became overloaded. In the severely affected areas, nearly 70 percent were under-qualified doctors. Medical staff were unprepared for the thousands of casualties. Doctors and hospitals were not aware of proper treatment methods for MIC gas inhalation. There were mass funerals and union carbide bhopal case study. Photographer Pablo Bartholemewon commission with press agency Raphotook an iconic color photograph of a burial on 4 December, Bhopal gas disaster girl.

Another photographer present, Raghu Raitook a black and white photo. The photographers did not ask for the identity of the father or child as she was buried, and no relative has since confirmed it. As such, the identity of the girl remains unknown. Both photos became symbolic of the suffering of victims of the Bhopal disaster, union carbide bhopal case study, and Bartholomew's went on to win the World Press Photo of the Year.

Within a few days, trees in the vicinity became barren and bloated animal carcasses had to be disposed of. Supplies, including food, became scarce owing to suppliers' safety fears.

Fishing was prohibited causing further supply shortages. Lacking any safe alternative, union carbide bhopal case study, on 16 December, tanks and were emptied of the remaining MIC by reactivating the plant and continuing the manufacture of pesticide. Despite safety precautions such as having water carrying helicopters continually overflying the plant, this led to a second mass evacuation from Bhopal.

Complaints of lack of information or misinformation were widespread, union carbide bhopal case study. An Indian government spokesman said, "Carbide is more interested in getting information from us than in helping our relief work".

Formal statements were issued that air, water, vegetation and foodstuffs were safe, but warned not to consume fish. The number of children exposed to the gases was at leastLegal proceedings involving UCC, the United States and Indian governments, local Bhopal authorities, and the disaster victims started immediately after the catastrophe.

The Indian Government passed the Bhopal Gas Leak Act in Marchallowing the Government of India to act as the legal representative for victims of the disaster, [34] leading to the beginning of legal proceedings. Initial lawsuits were generated in the United States federal court system. District Court ruling.

Following an appeal of this decision, the U. Court of Appeals affirmed the transfer, judging, in Januarythat UCIL was a "separate entity, owned, managed and operated exclusively by Indian citizens in India". Throughoutunion carbide bhopal case study, the Indian Union carbide bhopal case study Court heard appeals against the settlement.

The Court ordered the Indian government "to purchase, out of settlement fund, a group medical insurance policy to coverpersons who may later develop symptoms" and cover any shortfall in the settlement fund.

The company agreed to this. Inthe local Bhopal authorities charged Anderson, who had retired inwith manslaughter, a crime that carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison. He was declared a fugitive from justice by the Chief Judicial Magistrate of Bhopal on 1 February for failing to appear at the court hearings in a culpable homicide case in which he was named the chief defendant. Orders were passed to the Government of India to press for an extradition from the United States.

The U. Supreme Court refused union carbide bhopal case study hear an appeal of the decision of the lower federal courts in Octobermeaning that victims of the Bhopal disaster could not seek damages in a U. Inthe Indian Supreme Court ordered the Indian government to release any remaining settlement funds to victims. And in Septemberthe Welfare Commission for Bhopal Gas Victims announced that all original compensation claims and revised petitions had been "cleared".

Union Carbide Corporation in This move blocked plaintiffs' motions for class certification and claims for property damages and remediation. In the view of UCC, "the ruling reaffirms UCC's long-held positions and finally puts to rest—both procedurally and substantively—the issues raised in the class action complaint first filed against Union Carbide in by Haseena Union carbide bhopal case study and several organisations representing the residents of Bhopal".

Gokhale, managing director; Kishore Kamdar, vice-president; J. Mukund, works manager; S, union carbide bhopal case study. Chowdhury, production manager; K. Shetty, plant superintendent; and S. Qureshi, production assistant. US federal class action litigation, Sahu v. Union Carbide and Warren Andersonwas filed in under the U. The lawsuit was dismissed in and the subsequent appeal was denied. Some data about the health effects are still not available. A total of 36 wards were marked by the authorities as being "gas affected," affecting a population ofOf these,were below 15 years of age, and 3, were pregnant women.

The official immediate death toll was 2, and in3, deaths had been officially certified. Ingrid Eckerman estimated 8, died within two weeks.

 

 

union carbide bhopal case study

 

Case Study Series Bhopal Plant Disaster – Situation Summary M.J. Peterson Revised March 20, During the night of December , a leak of some 40 tons of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas mixed with unknown other gasses from a chemical plant owned and operated by Union Carbide (India) Limited, aAuthor: M.J. Peterson. Apr 16,  · Bhopal Gas Tragedy case study 1. Case Study onBhopal Gas Tragedy Made By- 2. Chemicals Dumped by Union Carbide in Bhopal cordreowebsa.tk Chemical Amount Use in factory Nature of original pollution 1 Methylene Chloride MT Solvent Air 2 Methanol 50 MT Solvent Air 3 Ortho-idichlorobenzene MT Solvent Air, Water, Soil 4 Carbon tetrachloride MT. THE BHOPAL INDUSTRIAL DISASTER: A CASE STUDY (A) Introduction The Bhopal disaster which took place in the early morning hours of 4 December is undoubtedly the worst industrial accident in history. 1 A highly toxic chemical namely methyl isocynate2 escaped from the Union Carbide India Limited plane in Bhopal.4 Thousands died a terrible.